Although fasting has been practiced for thousands of years, it has become uniquely popular in the last decade thanks to the proliferation and popularity of intermittent fasting. Some people practice time-restricted eating, which involves limiting your eating window to a certain number of hours per day and extending the overnight fasting timeframe. For example, 18/6 intermittent fasting would entail fasting for 18 hours per day, typically overnight, then doing all of your eating during a six-hour window in the daylight hours. In this scenario, you might have your first meal of the day at noon, finish your last meal at 6 p.m., and then fast overnight until the following day at noon.
Other people practice alternate-day fasting, which essentially involves a 24-hour water fast followed by a full day of regular eating in a cyclical pattern. Others just do an occasional 24-hour fast when they feel comfortable doing so. As the name implies, this means you won’t eat for a full 24-hour window. Keeping hydrated with water intake is always allowed in any safe fasting program.
When you’re practicing intermittent fasting or engaging in occasional fasting, the focus is typically on getting through the fasting window until it’s time to eat again, rather than what you will actually eat when the fast has lifted.
What are the best foods to break a fast? What foods should you avoid after fasting? Keep reading to find out!
Here are some of the best foods to eat after fasting:
Bone broth isn’t particularly filling, so it might not be the most satisfying food to break a fast, but it’s often a great place to start. It’s extremely easy to digest and high in some key nutrients your body needs after fasting. For example, it’s rich in electrolytes like potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium. Electrolytes are important minerals for all kinds of vital physiological processes such as maintaining fluid balance, conducting nerve impulses, and initiating the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They also improve hydration and are required for the digestion and absorption of nutrients like carbohydrates.
After fasting, the main macronutrient the body needs is protein. Although there are storable forms of carbohydrates and fat in the body in muscle and liver glycogen and adipose (fat) tissue, the only protein storage is skeletal muscle. Prolonged fasting can break down muscle tissue because the body constantly needs protein for many basic functions and biochemical processes. When you’re fasting and not taking in any protein, your body has to break down muscle tissue to access the protein it needs to sustain normal life functions.
Many protein-rich foods, particularly animal flesh, are fairly hard to digest because the proteins have complex, three-dimensional structures that require much work to digest and absorb the individual amino acids. Bone broth is great for breaking a fast because the proteins are already partially broken down, reducing the work the body has to do on its own. The protein here is absorbed easily, particularly compared to the protein found in animal flesh; the long cooking process of bone broth partially degrades the protein into a more digestible form.
Additionally, much of the protein in bone broth is collagen. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and forms a structural component in everything from teeth and skin to muscles, cartilage, and tendons. The body can synthesize collagen by combining the amino acids proline and glycine in a synthesis process that requires vitamin C, zinc, and copper. However, eating foods rich in collagen negates the need for this process, allowing the protein to be readily available for use.
Try to eat natural, organic bone broth; homemade is best. Otherwise, look for pre-packaged organic bone broth without added cream, fat, or excessive salt. You can also simmer it with vegetables such as carrots, broccoli, and dark, leafy green vegetables to add more vitamins and minerals.
As another high-protein food, eggs are one of the best foods to eat after fasting. Eggs are a complete source of protein, which means that they contain all nine essential amino acids. They also contain several important vitamins and minerals.
According to the USDA’s FoodData Central, one large, whole, hard-boiled chicken egg contains 78 calories, 6.3 grams of protein, 5.34 grams of fat, negligible carbohydrates and sugar, and small amounts of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, and selenium.
Eggs also contain a decent amount of vitamin A, vitamin D, folate, and the antioxidants choline, lutein, and zeaxanthin, which support eye health. Antioxidants can reduce inflammation, so breaking a fast with eggs may help augment the potential anti-inflammatory benefits of fasting.
Fruits are high in water, so they can be rehydrating after a fast. Even though you should be drinking throughout your entire fast, most people end up being a little bit dehydrated after fasting because it can be hard to keep up with your fluid needs through drinking alone. Additionally, fruits contain vitamins and minerals. The carbs in them are easy to digest, yet the fiber slows the digestion somewhat so that your system isn’t suddenly inundated with huge amounts of sugar.
Eating processed foods or foods high in simple carbohydrates, particularly if you consume too much too quickly after prolonged fasting, can lead to refeeding syndrome, which is when fluid imbalances occur following a period of fasting. The water and fiber content of fruit helps release a slow, steadier stream of glucose into the bloodstream to help limit the chance of refeeding syndrome.
The best fruits to eat after a fast are low-sugar fruits such as berries, melons, and grapefruit. These fruits are high in vitamin C and water.
Compared with most other animal proteins, fish is fairly easy to digest, making it one of the best foods to eat after fasting. Fish is packed with protein and other nutrients, such as potassium, vitamin D, and healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
Although raw, fibrous vegetables can cause digestive distress after fasting because they contain a lot of fiber, cooked veggies —particularly stewed or sautéed greens — can be among the best foods to eat after fasting.
The cooking process breaks down some cellulose, making the veggies much easier to digest without destroying the essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
Yogurt, kefir, kimchi, sauerkraut, miso, tempeh, and pickled vegetables undergo fermentation. During fermentation, the natural bacteria in the food break down the sugars and produces lactic acid. This is why fermented foods have a tangy or sour flavor to them.
Fermented foods are a natural source of probiotics, which are the healthy bacteria in your gut microbiome that help digest food and decrease gut and systemic inflammation. When you eat fermented foods, you help fortify your gut microbiome. This can help improve your digestion. Because the digestive system can be a little sluggish or may struggle after fasting, fermented foods are among the best foods to eat after fasting to get things moving again. They can also help make everything else you eat more easily digestible.
Although foods high in fat and fiber are inherently difficult to digest and can therefore be some of the worst foods to eat after fasting, avocado is an exception. Avocado is high in monounsaturated fats, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, and copper, and vitamins B, C, E, and K. All these are essential nutrients after fasting.
Additionally, avocados can be very satiating. This may help prevent overeating after a fast; people tend to eat too much too quickly after fasting, particularly if they consume processed foods and high-glycemic carbohydrates such as white bread, pasta, bagels, breakfast cereals, cookies, pastries, and jelly.
As a general rule of thumb, the best foods to eat to break a fast are the same ones in any healthy diet. Focus on natural, unprocessed foods. Eat slowly, chew your food, and let your digestive system guide you towards what foods feel satiating but tolerable. After all, there’s no point pushing through a tough fast and then undoing all your hard work by going hog wild with an enormous, highly processed, calorie-laden meal.
Many wonder how many calories break a fast and whether coffee breaks a fast.
Although fasting technically involves abstaining from caloric intake, most people consider black coffee to be fine to drink without breaking a fast.
One cup (240 ml) of black coffee only contains about three calories and trace amounts of protein, fat, and minerals. Therefore, drinking one or two cups of black coffee while fasting won’t really induce any metabolic changes or take you out of a fasting state. However, adding caloric sweeteners or cream, MCT oil, milk, or grass-fed butter to your coffee will break your fast because these add-ins contain an appreciable number of calories.
There is no scientific research or consensus among the medical community about how many calories break a fast, but if you’re trying to be strict in your fasting, aim to consume virtually no calories aside from a trace number in black coffee and herbal tea.
Some intermittent fasting gurus say that you can consume up to 50 calories and still keep your body in the fasting state, although there is no readily available scientific evidence to either confirm or disprove this idea.
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