Onsen Etiquette: 7 Rules for How to Hot Spring in Japan

train suite shiki shima journey to japan banner smallMost people only take one trip to Japan in their life, which is completely understandable given it’s position on the other side of the world and the fundamentally different language and culture. This is why you absolutely must visit an onsen, a geothermally heated spring with water that contains multiple beneficial minerals —you’ll never have find another experience like this anywhere else in the world.

Japanese onsen have been in use since before records were kept. Thousands can be found throughout all of the country’s home islands. Onsen can be either free-standing or attached to a hotel or ryokan. The pools are, more often than not, separated by gender, either through partitions, separate bathing areas, or alternating bathing times.

Onsen, however, are not water parks or bathhouses. They are places of leisure, peaceful meditation, light socializing, and regulations. Yes, like almost everything else in Japan, there are strict rules of onsen etiquette one must follow when visiting.

So, before you strip down and dive into a pool full of volcanically heated spring water, take heed of the often unspoken onsen etiquette and protocol, because the last thing you want is to be kicked out just when you’ve reached maximum relaxation.

Seven Rules for Visiting a Japanese Onsen

Rule No. 1: Wash Before Entering the Onsen

Most onsen will have a shower area — in or just outside the bathing area — where you are required to wash your body. Entering an onsen with soap or dirt/sweat still on your body is unacceptable and grounds for dismissal from the spring. Take this moment as an opportunity to thoroughly scrub yourself down and think of it as a preparation for a full-body skin treatment. After all, the spring is full of natural compounds and minerals that are great for the skin.

Japanese Onsen
John S Lander/Getty Images

Rule No. 2: You Must be Completely Naked

There is no way around this one. In Japan, clothing, towels, and any other garment that may be worn are considered sullied or “dirty” and should never, ever be brought into an onsen. Nudity is thus expressly required, but really, it’s no big deal. If you’ve ever had to shower in gym class (who hasn’t), nudity in an onsen is much less embarrassing because a) you’re not longer a squeaky-voiced teen, b) no one cares what you look like, and C) you definitely won’t get towel-snapped. That being said, some onsen will allow for bathing suits, but this is very rare (and such an onsen will usually not provide the most authentic experience).

Rule No. 3: No Tattoos

Sorry guys, this is a big no-no in a country where most people still associate tattoos with Japan’s native mafia, the Yakuza. If you’ve got small tattoos that can be covered with a waterproof bandage, you shouldn’t have any trouble getting in, but if you’re tatted from head to toe (or just Jesus covering your whole back), your best bet for visiting an onsen is to book a private one through a ryokan. Some onsen around Tokyo are specifically geared toward foreigners and thus are more lenient when it comes to tattoos (and nudity, as mentioned above), but they are few and far between.

Rule No. 4: Never Dip Your Towel in the Water

This harks back to Rule No. 2. and the notion that towels are dirty and should not come into contact with the water. Most people simply wear the small cloth they are given when checking in to the onsen on their heads. It may look funny, but it’s the easiest way to not lose your towel and not dirty the water at the same time. When everyone else is doing it, you won’t feel as ridiculous sitting in a 110-degree tub with a towel on your head.

Rule No.5 : Modesty is Appreciated

While nudity is required, modesty is expected. Use your small towel to casually hide your junk as you move from changing room to shower to onsen and back again. You’ll notice most Japanese men will be doing the same.

Rule No. 6: Don’t Go Under (Or Get Your Hair in the Water)

It’s pretty much forbidden to dunk your head under the water in an onsen — and for good reason. No one wants mouth germs floating around in an environment where bacteria thrive. It’s also a good idea never to dip your hair into the water, mostly to prevent oils and residual grooming products from dirtying the water, but also to simply keep hair out of the baths drains (they do drain and clean them often). If you’ve got long hair — it’s man-bun time.

Japanese Sand Baths
Japanese Hot Sand Baths (John S Lander/Getty Images)

Rule No. 7: Do Stay and Relax After your Dip

Most onsen have areas where you can relax after your stay in the hot spring. From hot sand rooms to small bars to lounge areas with massaging chairs and glasses of Kirin or sake, these facilities are the cherry on top of the onsen cake, and you should take advantage of them while you can. Where else are you going to be able to nap under a pile of heated sand? Only in Japan!

Editor’s Note: This article is part of The Manual’s larger Journey to Japan travel guide. Over the course of a month, our writers had the pleasure of experiencing Japan in its many forms, from high-rise bars in Tokyo to traditional tea-ceremonies in Kyoto. We hope this series of articles will not only inform, but inspire you to take your own trip to the Land of the Rising Sun.
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